Monthly Archives: February 2012

Is your child in stress?

Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI3458, Jan 24We are often busy in our daily hard routine and often feel stressed. We always try to fill these gap and come out from stress, but would we think that our child also feel stressed or feel so down?
Probably most of us think that child period is a stage when child are carefree, child have no any tension   or worries, and no any responsibility. Lots of studies tell us that child also experience high stress parallel to adults. Similar to adults child also feel difficulties in share and handling stress. As care provider and parents, We need to recognize that situation when our child are encountering with stress. Even unknowingly, we also create a environment that will be very stressful for our child.

Reason of stress
If you think only negative phenomena produce or cause for stress then it will be incomplete truth. According to me Positive phenomena also cause of stress.
Family events are broader cause for stress. Separation, Rejection, Fights, Physical abuse, break up of a family and death of parents / grandparent / sibling  is main negative phenomena that produce stress. Positive phenomena like birthday parties, new pet and birth of sibling produce stress. Stress due to birth of sibling can be describe through  Electra and Oedipus complex theory of Sigmund Freud. Busy family routine is also a important factor to boost up children stress, in this case parents can not spend more time with their children due to their work.
School environment is also play a major role in develop or produce stress. Negative phenomena in school like unstructured classroom, unclear topics, unwanted pressure by teachers and peer groups are important. Positive phenomena like introduce new gadget to study are create stressful environment.
Need to aware of what happening with child. Sudden changes in behavior may be related to stress.
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Sign and symptom of stress
Some sign and symptom indicate that our child may be encountering stress or some kind of problem that may be not stress but it can produce stress. Following sign and symptom are noticeable:

Cognitive Symptoms:
♦ Irresolution, Poor Judgment
♦ Unable to concentrate
♦ Loss of objectivity
♦ Fearful anticipation
♦ Constant worrying
♦ Memory problem

Emotional Symptom:
♦ Sense of loneliness and isolation
♦ High temper
♦ Overwhelmed feeling
♦ Irritability , impatience
♦ Unable to relax
♦ Moodiness

Behavioral Symptom:
♦ Impulsive behavior
♦ Neglecting responsibilities
♦ Nail biting, Pacing
♦ Isolate from peer group
♦ Overreacting
♦ Sleeping too much or little

Physical Symptom:
♦ Headaches and backaches
♦ Nausea, dizziness
♦ Muscles rigidity
♦ Frequent colds
♦ Chest Pain
♦ Fast Heartbeat
♦ Constipation

How to reduce stress
We are familiar with the word “Stress” yet we are find difficulties to cope with stress. Child are unfamiliar to this word so firstly they need to understand these word and its objectivity. Teach them names or word for their feelings and suitable way to express their feeling.At next step they need help in learning to manage and function with the stress they feel.
Following factor helps to reduce stress level in child:
Positive environment: Experience of stress can limit an individual’s concept and confident. Help children to see or find positivity in themselves and help to feel that they are worthwhile person. Listen without interrupting and judging them or the situation. Help the child to feel comfortable to express their feeling. You can help to correct any misconception that the children may have about themselves or their feelings.
Present a Good example: Children learn most of thing that will be negative or positive learn from parents. Children also learn, imitate, and coping strategies with stress in same way that they see in adults. It is sufficient to explain why something is being done. So present a good example by your activity.
Help them through stories: Children have not the appropriate word or concept to express themselves, so sometimes child not able to talk about their distress. Most of time they feel shy, embarrassed or guilt. If we try to talk them using adult logic they can not be understandable for children. Then how can we talk about fear and problems? Stories are a great way.
When a parent tells a story to a child, an atmosphere of warmth and intimacy is created that is comforting for parents as well as children. It helps as a parent to know that storytelling is a simple, natural, and age old technique that can be used to comfort children.

Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI3458, Jan 24

Why Reasoning in preschool age is important for Development?

Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI5643, August 23
Natural phenomena play a central role in understanding the natural world by promoting and developing their reasoning beyond simple observation of events. Children vary from one phenomenological situation to another. Preschools are very important in the initial development of a child’s life. Noble(1975) has analyzed children’s experiences of films in terms of the theories of Piaget. He claims that preschool children, who are at the preoperational stage, experience films as a series of separate and fragmentary incidents and not as a continuous story. This is because they lack the ability to reverse operations and hence cannot comprehend concepts such as beginning, middle and end.Casual explanation generated by children about a variety of natural phenomena have been extensively studied in the context of the development of children reasoning by Piaget, according to whom:

  1. Extended play with constructional toys.
  2. Enjoy 6+ pieces formboard and simple Jigsaw Puzzles.
  3. They can visualize shapes in different positions and learn to describe the direction, distance, and location of objects in space.
  4. Communicating about their ideas. Ability to use the imagination to invent something new or to generate new ideas.
  5. Giving suggestion and strategies for solving a normal puzzle.
  6. Understand principle of counting.
  7. Ability to distinguish fantacy from reality.

Changes in above pattern with some following acute changes show some hint to something happening in child life that is not usual. The intense anxiety and fear that often follow a disaster can be especially troubling for surviving children, especially if other children were victims of the disaster. They show some unusual pattern of reasoning. Some may demonstrate younger behaviors such as thumb sucking or bed-wetting. Children may be more prone to having nightmares and the fear of sleeping alone. Performance in normal reasoning may suffer. Other changes in behavior patterns may include throwing tantrums more frequently, or withdrawing and becoming more solitary (Ms. Surabhika Maheshwari, Dr. Cherian Varghese, Dr. Kavita Venkataraman, Dr. Vijaya Chandra; WHO).
There are several things parents, others who care for children and you as a volunteer can do to help reduce emotional consequences of trauma,WHO also admire the following:

  • Ensure the child is safe and is being looked after by a caring and responsible adult.
  • As far as possible, do not institutionalize or adopt the child out.
  • Be sensitive to knowing that a child often finds a toy or object or photograph comforting and that they may choose to wear or carry it around with them constantly.
  • Ensure regular monitoring of children who have been orphaned; check where they sleep; what their activities have been during the day and whether they feel safe.
  • Provide resources for children to play with, to occupy themselves or to express themselves through.
  • Arrange informal gatherings for children at places close-by to their families or new home bases so that children have the opportunity to play and talk together.
  • Listen to children’s stories. Often children are more comfortable expressing their feelings and experiences through make-believe stories or using objects.
  • Encourage young people to take up a useful role of their choice to help in the healing process.:Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI5643, August 23

What Kind of love is yours?

sternbergs triangular theoryArvind Kumar, P. No: JMI3423, May 09Sternberg conceptualized love in terms of three basic components that form the vertices of a triangle: intimacy,passion, anddecision/commitment. The intimacy component is primarily emotional or affective in nature and involves feelings of warmth, closeness, connection, and bondedness in the love relationship. The passion component is motivational and consists of the drives that are involved in physical attraction, sexual consummation, and related phenomena. The commitment component is largely cognitive and represents both the short-term decision that one individual loves another and the longer term commitment to maintain that love.
According to Sternberg, these three love components differ with respect to a number of properties, including stability, conscious controllability, and experiential salience. For example, the elements of intimacy and decision/commitment are usually quite stable in close relationships (once they occur and become characteristic of a relationship, they tend to endure), whereas passion tends to be less stable and predictable.
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In addition, whereas people possess a great deal of conscious control over the commitment that they make to relationships and possess at least some degree of control over their feelings of intimacy, they actually have very little conscious control over the amount of passion that they experience for their partners. The three components also differ in terms of their experiential salience. Specifically, an individual is usually quite aware of the passion component, but awareness of the intimacy and decision/commitment components can be extremely variable. That is, a person may experience feelings of intimacy (e.g., closeness, connection, warmth) without explicitly being aware of those feelings or even being able to identify what he or she is feeling. Similarly, a person might not consciously realize the full extent of his or her commitment to the relationship and the partner.

Types of Love Relationship
The three basic components of love combine to produce eight different love types, summarized in Table. Nonlove (no intimacy, passion, or decision/commitment) describes casual interactions that are characterized by the absence of all three love components. Most of our personal relationships (which are essentially casual associations) can be defined as nonlove. Liking (intimacy alone) relationships are essentially friendship. They contain warmth, intimacy, closeness, and other positive emotional experiences but lack both passion and commitment. Infatuation(passion alone) is an intense, “love at first sight” experience that is characterized by extreme attraction and arousal in the absence of any intimacy and decision/ commitment. In empty love (commitment alone) relationships, the partners are committed to each other and the relationship but lack an intimate emotional connection and passionate attraction. This type of love is often seen at the end of long-term relationships (or at the beginning of arranged marriages). Romantic love(intimacy + passion) consists of feelings of closeness and connection coupled with strong physical attraction. Companionate love (intimacy + commitment) is essentially a long-term, stable, and committed friendship that is characterized by high amounts of emotional intimacy, the decision to love the partner, and the commitment to remain in the relationship. This type of love is often seen in “best friendships” that are nonsexual or in long-term marriages in which sexual attraction has faded. Couples who experience fatuous love (passion + commitment) base their commitment to each other on passion rather than on deep emotional intimacy. These “whirlwind” relationships are typically unstable and at risk for termination. Finally, consummate love (intimacy + passion + commitment) results from the combination of all three components. According to Sternberg, this is the type of “complete” love that many individuals strive to attain, particularly in their romantic relationships. Because the three basic components of love occur in varying degrees within a relationship, most love relationships will not fit cleanly into one particular category but will reflect some combination of categories.

Why play is essential for Child?

Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI7654, December 16Play is important to childhood development as well as children learn about shapes, colors, cause and effect and themselves. In cognitive thinking, play helps the child learn social and psycho-motor skills. Play consists of those activities performed for self amusement that have behavioral,social, and psycho-motor rewards. It is a way of communicating joy, fear , sorrow, and anxiety . Early 2000s children of all ages and from every socioeconomic background often prefer television, computers, and battery-operated toys to self-directed, imaginative, and creative play. This tendency leaves children developmentally deprived, because imaginative and fantasy play allows children to explore their world and express their inner thoughts and feelings, hopes and fears, likes and dislikes. Through play, decisions are made without penalty or fear of fail. Play allows children to gain control of their thoughts, feelings, actions, and helps them achieve self-confidence.Play takes different forms for different children, and its definition entails many aspects. Play is the direct opposite of work; it is frivolous. It provides freedom and invites the impulse to engage in foolishness. Yet it provides a means for ego development and a process by which social skills and physical skills develop as well.Play with imagination and fantasy is the child’s natural medium of self-expression and one that gives cues about the child’s conscious and unconscious states. In play therapy, clinicians employ various techniques designed to reveal the child’s psychological and social development. Clinician-directed play therapy is, therefore, not naturally self-directed play, but play designed by a professional to facilitate understanding of the child and the child’s healing process.

Categories of play
Some specific categories of play are as follows:

  1. Physical play: When children run, jump, and play games such as chase, hide-and-seek, and tag, they engage in physical play. This play has a social nature because it involves other children. It also provides exercise , which is essential for normal development.
  2. Expressive play: Certain forms of play give children opportunities to express feelings by engaging with materials. Materials used in expressive play include tempera paints, fingerpaints, watercolors, crayons, colored pencils and markers, and drawing paper; clay, water, and sponges; beanbags, pounding benches, punching bags, and rhythm instruments; and shaving cream, pudding, and gelatin. Parents can take an active role in expressive play by using the materials alongside the child.
  3. Dramatic play: Children act out situations they suspect may happen to them, that they are fearful will happen, or that they have witnessed. Dramatic play can be either spontaneous or guided and may be therapeutic for children in the hospital.

Functions of play

  • PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Play aids in developing both fine and gross motor skills . Children repeat certain body movements purely for pleasure, and these movements develop body control. For example, an infant will first hit at a toy, then will try to grasp it, and eventually will be able to pick it up. Next, the infant will shake the rattle or perhaps bring it to the mouth. In these ways, the infant moves from simple to more complex gestures. Because play often involves physical activity, it is closely related to the development and refinement of children’s gross and fine motor skills and their body awareness. As children vigorously and joyfully use their bodies in physical exercise, they simultaneously refine and develop skills that enable them to feel confident, secure and self-assured. In societies where children experience pressure to succeed in all areas, confidence and competence are essential (Berk, 2002; Fromberg, 2002; Frost et al., 2001; Holmes & Geiger, 2002; McCune & Zanes, 2001; Murata & Maeda, 2002; Santrock, 2003).
  • EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Children who are anxious may be helped by role playing. Role playing is a way of coping with emotional conflict. Children may escape through play into a fantasy world in order to make sense out of the real one. Also, a child’s self-awareness deepens as he explores an event through role-playing or symbolic play.When a parent or sibling plays a board game with a child, shares a bike ride, plays baseball, or reads a story, the child learns self-importance. The child’s self-esteem gets a boost. Parents send positive messages to their child when they communicate pleasure in providing him or her with daily care. From these early interactions, children develop a vision of the world and gain a sense of their place in it.
  • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Children gain knowledge through their play. They exercise their abilities to think, remember, and solve problems. They develop cognitively as they have a chance to test their beliefs about the world.Children increase their problem-solving abilities through games and puzzles. Children involved in make-believe play can stimulate several types of learning. Language is strengthened as the children model others and organize their thoughts to communicate. Children playing house create elaborate narratives concerning their roles and the nature of daily living.Evidence also suggests a strong relationship between play and cognitive development. Studies indicate a positive relationship between play and student learning (Kumar & Harizuka, 1998; Lieberman, 1977). They identify improvements to attention, planning skills, and attitudes (McCune & Zanes, 2001; Smilansky & Shefatya, 1990; Sylva, Bruner, & Genova, 1976); creativity and divergent thinking (Dansky, 1980; Holmes & Geiger, 2002; Pepler, 1982; Sutton-Smith, 1997); perspective-taking (Burns & Brainerd, 1979); memory(Jensen, 1999, 2000; Saltz, Dixon, & Johnson, 1977); and language development (Clawson, 2002; Creasey, Jarvis, & Berk, 1998; Gardner, 1993; Howes, Droege, & Matheson, 1994).Children also increase their understanding of size, shape, and texture through play. They begin to understand relationships as they try to put a square object in a round opening or a large object in a small space. Books, videos, and educational toys that show pictures and matching words also increase a child’s vocabulary while increasing the child’s concept of the world.
  • SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT A newborn cannot distinguish itself from others and is completely self-absorbed. As the infant begins to play with others and with objects, a realization of self as separate from others begins to develop. The infant begins to experience joy from contact with others and engages in behavior that involves others. The infant discovers that when he coos or laughs, mother coos back. The child soon expects this response and repeats it for fun, playing with his mother.Social skills are learned in the give and take of play. Verbal communication and body language, safety and danger, freedom and boundaries, cooperation and teamwork: all are discovered and practiced repeatedly during infant and childhood play. We continue to refine these skills in adulthood through play and playful communication.As children grow, they enjoy playful interaction with other children. Children learn about boundaries, taking turns, teamwork, and competition. Children also learn to negotiate with different personalities and the feelings associated with winning and losing. They learn to share, wait, and be patient.As social organisms, humans have a basic need to belong to and feel part of a group and to learn how to live and work in groups with different compositions and for different purposes. Play serves several functions in satisfying these needs and developing these social and emotional life skills. For example, children of all ages need to be socialized as contributing members of their respective cultures. Numerous studies (Creasey, Jarvis, & Berk, 1998; Erikson, 1963; Goleman, 1995; Piaget, 1962; Rubin & Howe, 1986; Rubin, Maioni, & Hormung, 1976; Rubin, Watson, & Jambor, 1978; Sutton-Smith, 1997; Vygotsky, 1978) indicate that play with others gives children the opportunity to match their behavior with others and to take into account viewpoints that differ from their own. Thus, play provides the rich experience children need to learn social skills.
  • MORAL DEVELOPMENT When children engage in play with their peers and families, they begin to learn some behaviors are acceptable while others are unacceptable. Parents start these lessons early in the child’s life by teaching the child to control aggressive behavior . Parents can develop morals while reading to children by stressing the moral implications in stories. Children can identify with the moral fictional characters without assuming their roles. With peers they quickly learn that taking turns is rewarding and cheating is not. Group play helps the child appreciate teamwork and share and respect others’ feelings. The child learns how to be kind and charitable to others.:Arvind Kumar Otta, P. No: JMI7654, December 16

Process to get the license of “Psychologist” in India

Today, I received a mail from Mr. Ravinder Yadav. He want to know the process to get the license. Basically In India, There is a two way to obtain license of Clinical Psychologist. This License provided by RCI(Rehabilitation Council Of India).You can get license automatically when you complete minimum level of education from RCI certified university and Institution. And another way, you can apply in RCI to register you after appropriate educational Degree. Please Share your Valuable responses information.